Concept of Risk and Return, & Return and Risk Factors Cause

The investor will struggle to minimize the portfolio risk and maximize the portfolio return on his investments. The investor will not be willing to take on additional portfolio risk unless additional portfolio return is provided to him. It’s important to point out that since risk is two-sided , the above strategies may result in lower expected returns (i.e., upside becomes limited). Instead, investors should analyze the market and the company. If they decide to buy in a bear market, the stock should be promising in the long run. And, like any investment, this too requires a lot of planning.

  • Due to changes in the interest rates, some investments in the portfolio may go down while others may go up.
  • There are broadly two groups of elements classified as systematic risk and unsystematic risk.
  • Forecast cannot be made with perfection or certainty since the future events on which they depend are uncertain.
  • From equities, fixed income to derivatives, the CMSA certification bridges the gap from where you are now to where you want to be — a world-class capital markets analyst.
  • That being said, there is a limit to the effectiveness of diversification as a portfolio grows increasingly large.

One of the ideal measures to reduce risk while simultaneously maximizing revenue is by diversifying the investment portfolio. Investors can choose multiple investments that offer different returns accordingly. The rule of Risk and return is described in a concise manner as “NO pain – No gain”. Whenever there is a presence of risk, there must also be the presence of return. If an investor has a certain amount that is safe then he will not invest that amount in a risky project unless there is the presence of some additional return against taking that risk. The investor likes to invest in that investment that can provide him additional return.

Risk and Return in Financial Management Explained

Examples of such factors are raw material scarcity, labour strike, management ineffi­ciency, etc. When the variability in returns occurs due to such firm-specific factors it is known as unsystematic risk. This risk is unique or peculiar to a specific organization and affects it in addition to the systematic risk. These risks are subdivided into business risk and financial risk. There are many benefits of diversifying an investment portfolio. Investors can choose to invest in stocks with high risk and compensate for the risk by investing in bonds.

The concept of “risk and return” is that riskier assets should have higher expected returns to compensate investors for the higher volatility and increased risk. The concept of risk and return makes reference to the possible economic loss or gain from investing in securities. A gain made by an investor is referred to as a return on their investment. Conversely, the risk signifies the chance or odds that the investor is going to lose money. In the case that an investor chooses to invest in an asset with minimal risk, the possible return then is often modest.

A shift in leadership, a safety recall on a good, a legislative reform that might reduce firm sales, or a new rival in the market are all examples of unsystematic risk. Return can be defined as the actual income from a project as well as appreciation in the value of capital. Various components cause the variability in expected returns, which are known as elements of risk. There are broadly two groups of elements classified as systematic risk and unsystematic risk.

concept of risk and return

When there is an idea of the variation of the possible outcomes of a particular investment, then risk can be measured. Another important point is the consideration of the time horizon in measuring the risk like an investment made in stock is for 1 year or for twenty years. With the change in the time period of investment, the level of risk also changes. Asset class #1, risk-free bonds, are issued by governments and, in most cases, are considered “risk-free” since a government can print money to pay off its debts. Because of this, risk-free bonds are the safest asset and consequently have the lowest investment return.

Risk and Return Examples

For example, by diversifying a portfolio of investment assets, a comparable return can often be generated with less risk than an undiversified investment portfolio. That being said, there is a limit to the effectiveness of diversification as a portfolio grows increasingly large. The risk of additional investment in certain share of Company XYZ will be different after maintaining portfolio of many uncorrelated different investments. In fact the risk is reduced by investing in different shares & bonds of different companies & in different countries. With the increase in the size of portfolio, the level of risk generally reduces.

This group of securities falls into 2 areas at once – risk instruments and instruments with high reliability. The definition of a bond in a risk-free or risk-free zone depends on the quality of the issuer. The measure of reliability in this case is the ability of the issuer to meet its obligations to creditors.

The weighted average of expected returns of every single investment in the portfolio is referred to as portfolio’s expected rate of return. Following is its formula which is similar to the expected return for single investment but its interpretation is quite different. On investments with default risk, the risk is measured by the likelihood that the promised cash flows might not be delivered. Investments with higher default risk usually charge higher interest rates, and the premium that we demand over a riskless rate is called the default premium.

The stock investments in every stock market of the country are systematically influenced by these global events i.e. Macro Market Interest Rates, Inflation, War and Recession etc. The collection of multiple investments is referred to as portfolio. Mostly large size organizations maintains portfolio of their different investments and hence the risk and return is considered as the entire portfolio risk and return. Portfolio may be composed of 2 or more bonds, stocks, securities and investments or combination of all.

concept of risk and return

When choosing stocks, in addition to analyzing financial statements for a long period, it is necessary to assess the company’s growth prospects. Various changes occur in a society like economic, political and social systems that have influence on the performance of companies and thereby on their expected returns. Hence the impact of these changes is system-wide and the portion of total variability in returns caused by such across the board factors is referred to as systematic risk. These risks are further subdivided into interest rate risk, market risk, and purchasing power risk. Increased potential returns on investment usually go hand-in-hand with increased risk.

A return is usually presented as a percentage relative to the original investment over a given time period. There are two commonly used rates of return in financial management. After investing money in a project a firm wants to get some outcomes from the project. The outcomes or the benefits that the investment generates are called returns. Wealth maximization approach is based on the concept of future value of expected cash flows from a prospective project. Market risk is also called Beta Risk or Non-Diversifiable Risk and is connected with Socio-political & Macroeconomic events that occur on global basis.

Forecast cannot be made with perfection or certainty since the future events on which they depend are uncertain. Environment, operating environment comprises both internal environment within the firm and external environment outside the firm. Business risk is thus a function of the operating conditions faced by a company and is the variability in operating income caused by the operating conditions of the company. Human beings, like other animals, are designed to be risk-averse .


The yield on the bonds of distressed companies with a high risk of default reaches 50% or higher. If we talk about industry affiliation, the securities of financial, construction, leasing and insurance companies currently have the highest percentage. The reliability of profitable and large companies is identified with the reliability of the state itself, since they form the basis of the country’s economy. As a compensation for reliability, the yield on them is lower than the average for a group of corporate bonds and is at the level of government bonds or municipal bonds. The starting element on the chart is government bonds or federal loan bonds. These are financial instruments with the highest degree of reliability.

concept of risk and return

We calculate the real rate of return by taking the nominal rate of return and subtracting the inflation rate. Standard deviation is usually applied to an investment’s annual return to gauge return volatility. A greater standard deviation indicates greater investment volatility and, therefore, greater risk. Other things remaining equal, the higher the correlation in returns between two assets, the smaller are the potential benefits from diversification.

Concept of Risk and Return

Diversifiable risk is Company Specific or Non Systematic and is connected with the random events of respective Company whose stocks are being purchased. Examples of random events include successful marketing campaign, winning major contract, losing a charismatic CEO and losing court case etc. The good random events influencing one stock will be cancel out by the bad random events that influence another stock of the portfolio.

Risk and Return Concept

The term yield is often used in connection to return, which refers to the income component in relation to some price for the asset. The total return of an asset for the holding period relates to all the cash flows received by an investor during any designated time period to the amount of money invested in the asset. The portfolio risk is not the weighted average risk of the singles investments and more specifically it is less than weighted average risk of single investments. Following are the kinds of risks related with stocks that create uncertainty in the future possible returns and cash flows. Risk and return analysis in Financial Management is related with the number of different uncorrelated investments in the form of portfolio.

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